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"Frederic Coyett--Last Dutch Governor of Taiwan"Bill (left) as Governor Coyett in the Chinese mini-series about Koxinga  Scott Ballantyne, Xiamen's resident Englishman, is to the right

附录
弗里德里克?揆一 ——台湾末任荷兰总督

当年我曾在一部电视系列短剧中扮演揆一,屈膝向郑成功投降,我当时就想揆一当初究竟在想什么。现在我明白了!经过长时间的搜寻,我终于从一个荷兰书商手中买到一本十分珍贵的书,是揆一撰写的《被忽略的福摩萨》的英文版。

因台湾是在揆一手中丧失给郑成功的,回荷兰后揆一被判死刑(后改为终生监禁),但揆一通过写“叙述福摩萨岛是如何在荷兰东印地公司当局的疏忽下被中国海盗郑成功入侵、臣服和占领的真实情况”1来阐明谁该真正为失去台湾负责。

揆一总督,出生于斯德哥尔摩一个瑞典贵族家庭,撰写《被忽略的福摩萨》说明荷兰官员忽视有关中国人入侵的警告,而这种警告早在1646年就有人提出来了。例如,他引用了一封1652年7月25日由巴达维亚参议会写给总督费尔博格的信。信的原文如下:

“现在中国有很多关于田川氏的儿子郑成功的传言,说他在鞑靼人的高压下很难在中国立住脚,也觉得不安全。因而他率领一支军队到海上当海盗,还开始关注福摩萨岛,以图最终在这片土地上落脚……我们认为最好还是把这事通告尊敬的总督,这样您可以继续积极准备防御并随时保持警惕。”

1654年3月10日,台湾总督凯塞尔承认郑成功入侵可能带来的威胁使他毛发竖立。揆一写道,“但是如果这家伙在1653年因为一小撮没有威胁的暴民叛乱就吓得毛发直竖,那么要是在1661年郑成功带着更多农民,再加上25000多装备精良、英勇善战的士兵降临台湾,他还是台湾总督,他会有什么样的反应呢?恐怕他不仅一夜白头,而且要吓得心脏迸出了……”
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揆一再三要求增援,但是荷兰政府正忙着从葡萄牙手中抢夺澳门,指责揆一杞人忧天。而1660年10月,当增援的12艘战舰真的来了,而荷兰舰队司令又蔑视所谓的威胁。在和揆一进行艰难谈判后,他率领其中9艘战舰到巴达维亚,他还说揆一坏话,并说服荷兰政府用克朗克取代揆一任台湾总督。

正当克朗克前往台湾就任时,荷兰政府得到郑成功入侵台湾的消息,当即派船前往召回克朗克并再次让揆一担任总督。但是克朗克没有接到通知,而当看到台湾战势时,他就逃到日本,让揆一自生自灭。

郑成功命令揆一在24小时内投降,但是尽管郑的人数远远超过他,而且增援无望,揆一仍然拒绝投降。当郑成功发现突破城堡的防守比较困难时,他采用长时间围困的战略,他知道最终他们会因为断粮而屈服。

数月后,少得可怜的救援兵力前来解救揆一,只有10艘战舰,700名荷兰士兵。与此同时满清政府闽、浙总督也愿意为打败郑成功提供援助。但揆一的希望又一次破灭了,他委托荷兰舰队司令带信和礼品给福建总督。但在郑成功摧毁他几艘战舰后,怕死的司令自己逃回荷兰。揆一这一次真的只有靠自己,毫无胜算。

1662年1月,在英勇地抵抗郑成功包围数月后,荷兰人决定投降。或许,郑成功尊重揆一英勇但无用的抵抗,他允许敌人坐自己的船,悬挂荷兰国旗离开。但是揆一的同胞却不像他的对手那样仁慈。尽管揆一是惟一具有远见、正直和英勇的荷兰领导人,荷兰政府却因为他失败而判他死刑。

幸运的是,揆一小心翼翼收藏的档案,以及日记和信件证明了事情的真相。在被流放9年后,他带着荣耀回到家乡,并着手写《被忽略的福摩萨》。这本书引人入胜并不乏幽默地剖析了揆一和郑成功这对伟大的对手。
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Cover of book Neglected Formosa by Frederic Coyett Taiwan's last Dutch governor

Excerpts from Coyett's "Neglected Formosa"
揆一《被忽略的福摩萨》节选
“Neglected Formosa,” by Inez de Beachair; translation from the Dutch of Coyett’s ‘t Verwaerloosde Formosa (Amsterdam, 1675), Chinese Materials Center, Inc. S.F., 1975

Coyett describes Koxinga's troops / 揆一眼中的郑成功军队
“他(郑成功)没有构筑战壕,也没有架设任何大炮,尽管他非常了解战争模式,而且拥有充足的重型武器装备,这一点在后来的战斗中得到证实。很显然,他认为将不费任何周折而夺取城堡。”

“敌人的士兵使用各种各样的武器。一些士兵背上挎着弓和箭;另外一些除了左臂一块盾牌外,右手一把利剑外什么都没有;而许多士兵双手都挥动着令人生畏的战剑,剑足足有半人长。每个士兵的上身都穿一件铁甲来护身,就像屋顶的瓦片环环相扣。他们的手臂和大腿是裸露的。”
Chinese weapons on display at Koxinga museum
这为防止步枪攻击提供全面的保护,而且能够活动自如。因为那些铠甲只是延伸到膝盖位置,而且每个交接处都非常灵活。

弓箭手是郑成功最精良的军队,而且是他的主要依靠力量。因为即使在很远的距离,他们也能以娴熟的技术操使武器,这使得我们的步枪手黯然失色。

“每10个人中,就有一个队长,队长掌管队伍并促使他的队伍向前,迫使他们向敌人的队伍进逼。他们弯着头,把身体藏在盾牌里,以激烈和不屈的勇气,向对方进攻,像是家里还有一副多余的躯体似的。他们不断地向前进逼,尽管很多人被击毙,他们想都不想,仍然像疯狗一样向前冲,也不向四周看看有没有同伴跟上。”

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Koxinga's Response to Dutch protestations of friendship / 郑成功对荷兰人所谓友好声明的回应

“[荷兰人的友谊]就像他们对待其他印度当权者和王公贵族一样,即只从他们自身利益出发,只要有利可图,友谊就能维持。如果他们占优势,就不会表现出友谊。但是,如果他们认为合适,会毫不犹豫向任何一个人下手。”

Koxinga's View on Taiwan's Relation to Mainland China / 郑成功关于台湾和大陆关系的论述
“然台湾者,早为中国人所经营,中国之土地也,……今余既来索,则地当归我。荷兰人毫无疑问只是被允许居住而已,荷兰人,来自遥远地区的外国人,只有把她交还给她的主人,才是公平合理的。中国并不是发动与荷属东印地公司的战争(尽管他的手下曾经多次被他们不友善地对待),而只是想要回属于他的东西。为表明他没打算要用荷属东印地公司的财产发家致富,他同意他们把自己的东西和财产装到船上,把城堡推倒,把大炮以及其它物资搬运到巴达维亚,如果他们立即搬走的话。那样,他和荷属东印地公司的友谊将丝毫未损……”

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Gulangyu's Koxinga-related tourist sites / 岛上与郑成功相关的景点
日光岩(郑成功纪念馆,水操台);郑成功石雕像(皓月园);印斗石(见民间传说那一章);国姓井(延平公园内)

TRAVEL LINKS Hakka Earthen architecture Favorite Fujian Sites Photographs of Fuhken places like Zhangzhou, Longyan, Ningde, Sanming, Wuyi MountainFujian Foto Album AmoyMagic-- Travel , Resident and Business Guide to Xiamen and FujianXiamen Gulangyu Kulangyu Kolongsoo Kolongsu KulongsuGulangyu Guide to Fukien Fuhken Fujian Guides Mystic Quanzhou -- the fabled port of Zayton ( or Zaytun Zaitun Zaiton ) from which Marco Polo sailed,  Sinbad the Arab visited.  ChinchewQuanzhou Zhangzhou  changchow Zhangzhou Longyan Yongding Liancheng Changting Amoy Tigers LianchengLongyan Wuyi Mountain Guide Zhuxi  tea Wuyi Mtn Ningde Taimu Mountain ZhouningNingde Putian Fujian Xianyou Mazu TemplePutian Sanming Scenic Wonderland Mingxi Gem bed rubies Sanming
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Hakka Earthen architecture Taimu Mtn. Hakka Earthen architecture Roundhouses Fujian covered wooden bridgesBridges Hakka Earthen architecture Jiangxi Hakka Earthen architecture Guilin Help Build an online  community for foreigners.  Join the Xiamen Guide forumOrder Books
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