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Discover Gulangyu! 魅力鼓浪屿
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/“日本出生”中国神话
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Click for "Surrender!"/投降!
Click for "Koxinga Legends on Taiwan and Gulangyu" / 台湾和鼓浪屿的郑成功传说
Click for Frederic Coyett--Taiwan's Last Dutch Governor (Chinese Version) / 弗里德里克?揆一 ——台湾末任荷兰总督

第二章
郑成功——最后一位明朝的保卫者
Granite statue of Coxinga
“郑成功,自称是养着一批被驱逐的痛恨鞑靼人的中国人的首领。在他周围聚集着强大的军事力量,他带着军队,无论海陆、光复城乡,令敌人头痛不已。他领导了如此英勇的斗争,使得占领整个中国的鞑靼人不得不承认,消灭一个郑成功比征服上百万人还要难,也使得他们承认无法牢固其统治地位。”( 《被忽略的福摩萨》第1,2页)

船驶进厦门港,迎面就是最后一个反清复明的英雄——郑成功的巨大的花岗岩雕像。在鼓浪屿最高处日光岩训练完部队后,他从荷兰人手中光复台湾,被海峡两岸的中国人乃至日本人所敬仰……

日本出生”中国神话 郑成功(1624-1662)出生于日本,父亲是中国人郑芝龙,母亲来自日本的田川家族。郑成功从小受到相当好的栽培。在十八世纪的日本,上演关于他人生故事的戏剧受欢迎程度堪与西方上演莎士比亚剧媲美。甚至在当今日本还流传着这样的神话,在郑成功诞生的夜里,天空被流星照得雪亮,预示着这场早期中日婚姻的后代将拥有灿烂的将来。
像所有好父亲一样,郑芝龙想让儿子弥补自己年少时的缺陷——也就是大量的家庭功课。他把七岁的郑成功送回家乡南安(离厦门一小时的路程),读书时郑成功就已出类拔萃,他很快认识到有时候笔不比剑轻。
在农民军推翻明朝后,满族很快篡进权力真空建立清朝。汉族历经一系列徒劳抵抗后,于1646年福州战役战败。郑成功的母亲自杀,他那机会主义的父亲投降,原本儒家的传统孝道要求郑跟从父亲领导,但他却继续保持对明朝的忠诚。
他烧掉了传统长袍,套上盔甲,高喊“思明”,继续战斗。
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收复台湾 1661年4月21日,郑成功带领25,000名士兵和上百艘舢板穿越台湾海峡,从荷兰人那里夺回台湾。这位精明的战略家一直待到北风快结束,以致荷兰战船无法向殖民总督府巴达维亚(今雅加达)发出警报。
在4月30日薄雾蒙蒙的早晨,荷兰人醒来发现“海面上森林般密密麻麻的桅杆”,尽管惊讶万分但并没有完全清醒,因为他们一直认为中国人都是懦夫,会在火炮开始后一轰而散,他们为这一谬见付出了生命的代价。
在这本令人沉思的书《被忽略的福摩萨》(P46,47)中,弗里德里克? 揆一 ,最后一任台湾的荷兰总督,描述了一位有勇无谋的贝德尔上尉的命运,这个上尉只带领几百个人就卷入了与几千中国勇士的战争中。
“贝德尔把他的队伍分成两队,并号召他们表现勇敢不要惧怕中国敌人,因为胜利是理所当然的。贝德尔上尉非常笃定这点,他坚定和自信的态度也激励了他的士兵。他们确信中国人不能闻火药味或是听枪声,只要首次冲锋后,除击中的一些人,其余的将作鸟兽散。
类似上述的战争的确在1652年发生过,当荷兰二三百名战士战胜七八千武装的中国士兵后。从那时起,我们就认为在福摩萨的中国人是无足轻重且娇气的人,在战争中表现是懦弱胆小的。当时普遍认为二十五个中国人抵不上一个荷兰兵,而且所有中国人都一个样,不管是农民还是士兵,如果他是地道中国人,那他就一定是个没脊梁骨的懦夫。这个偏见是这样根深蒂固,尽管我们也耳闻郑是如何英勇地打败鞑靼人,足见他的士兵绝非懦夫,但这并没有改变成见:郑成功不过就是战胜了那些穷兮兮可怜巴巴的鞑靼人,他根本没机会战胜荷兰人,我们荷兰人会很快对付他们,给以厉害颜色瞧。带着如此偏见,贝德尔上尉做了一个简短的祈祷,就命令他的士兵们朝着敌人勇往直前,那里有4000名全副武装的中国士兵。当中国人看到贝德尔只有几百人时,他们从主干部队分出七八百号人,从山的背后包抄并从后袭击了这小撮荷兰人。
“贝德尔的部队站成12人一列向敌人挺进,当他们走得足够近时,他们一次就开了三炮。但是敌人,不但是勇敢的,还发射了那么多箭,黑压压地铺满了天空。虽说两翼都有士兵受伤倒下,出乎意料,他们并没有逃走。”
“当看到不仅正面的敌军不能击溃,背后也遭到敌军袭击时,荷兰人这才意识到他们低估了对手。此时,荷兰人战前英勇的气概已消失了,取而代之的是内心的恐惧。许多士兵一枪未发就落荒而逃。实际上,他们已顾不上体面、接二连三地逃离勇敢的战友,背叛了英勇的上尉。贝德尔曾试图阻止这种大范围溃败,让军队能有秩序地撤退。他的努力被证明是愚蠢的,没有士兵遵从命令,因为恐惧已占了上风,生命对每个人都珍贵,每个士兵都想活命。中国人看到敌方溃不成军,战斗得愈发英勇,他们对敌人杀无赦,直到上尉和他的118名士兵全部战死。这就是荷兰人轻敌的下场。”
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任人宰割 这是一个惨痛的教训,在对峙了几周后,郑成功乘胜追击,提醒总督揆一:
“你看,在陆地上骄傲的贝德尔上尉是多么的卑微。他和他的军队一样的蠢,我们不屑一顾。至少在我的勇士们看来,他们是放下武器,伸出脖子,等待罪有应得的惩罚。这些难道还不足以证明你们无能又无法与我抗衡吗?”

郑成功再次要求荷兰人投降
“你们荷兰人既自负又迟钝,你们不配同情。如果你们以仅有的少数人(我被告之你们的城堡人数已经不多)愚顽抵抗,你们将会遭到最严厉的惩罚。还要顽固抵抗吗,不想放聪明点吗?至少让失败教训你们,你们所有的力量加起来还不及我千分之一。”
“如果你们仍然不听我们的劝说、拒绝我的命令,如果要自取灭亡,那么,我将很快当你们的面下令进攻(说到这儿,他手指要塞赤嵌城)。
我锐兵将攻破城堡,占领粉碎你们。如果我的军队进攻,他们将无坚不摧;不管进攻哪里,一定大胜而归。因此,听听我的忠告,仔细掂量一下吧!”


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投降 1662年1月27日,荷兰人投降了,交出了他们占领38年的殖民地。海峡两岸的中国人沸腾了,郑成功率领军队凯旋而归,士兵们玩起了“博饼”游戏。“博饼”是郑成功为缓解士兵的思乡之情而发明的,至今中秋节期间仍然流行“博饼”(在节假日那一章有更详细的介绍)。但爱国也使郑成功付出了健康的代价,5个月后的6月23日,他去世了。中国的一位历史学家指出郑成功是卒于过劳死,或许我们也该吸取教训。
1683年,清政府把台湾和厦门合为一个行政区,称“台厦道”。尽管后来它们又被分为两个行政区,从那以后厦门和台湾的关系一直非常密切,因为80%的台湾人来自福建,而且两地居民因共同尊奉中国民族英雄郑成功而紧密相连。
郑成功石雕像 雕像位于皓月园内,坐落在高耸的覆鼎岩之上,高出海平面41.2米。皓月园这个名字源自郑成功刻在鼓浪屿岩石上的一首诗,诗文如下“思君寝不寐,皓月透素帷。”(听起来像是MTV里的抒情诗,或是广东的流行歌曲)
这座高达16.2米,重达1.617吨的花岗岩雕像由625块花岗岩组成。来自北京中央美术学院的时宜教授经过长达三年半的时间进行调研并建造了她的杰作。当地的居民感激地说它可以保护厦门风平浪静。在1999年10月台风肆虐我们美丽的厦门岛之后,我问一个朋友,“当我们需要他的时候,郑成功哪里去了?”
“郑成功‘下岗’了,你知道世道艰难。”他诙谐地说。


台湾和鼓浪屿的郑成功传说
厦门一直以来和台湾关系密切,因为我们岛上没有足够的耕地承载大量涌入的商人,台湾几百年来一直是我们的谷仓。海峡两岸也因供奉同一“贤王”而紧紧联系在一起。台湾有63座供奉郑成功的庙宇和数不清的关于郑成功的传说及习俗,其中大部分和食品有关。这也不奇怪,因为中国人既擅烹煮又擅美食。
基隆市仙人洞 涌出了无数粮食使郑成功军队的粮草得到保证。唉,懒惰的士兵在向洞内深处挖的时候一定触犯了仙灵,因为现在仙人洞已经不涌粮食出来了。
国圣鱼 据说郑成功曾经喜欢好几种鱼和蜗牛,现在台湾人把那些鱼和蜗牛叫做国圣鱼和国圣蜗。
铁砧山剑井 当郑成功饥渴的军队经过台中大甲镇时,郑成功用剑尖戳地,顿时清泉从地下喷涌而出。而鼓浪屿也有神奇的“国姓井”……

鼓浪屿国姓井,位于延平公园。虽然非常接近港仔后海滨浴场和大海,按照推测它已经不间断地喷涌清泉300多年了。
据说,郑成功的士兵挖井时,挖到3米深遇到巨石。士兵们垂头丧气,筋疲力尽倒在地上。
郑成功正好过来视察水井的挖掘情况。当他得知遇到巨石,亲自爬进坑里仔细查看井壁,结果发现沙土有点潮湿。“你们因为巨石而气馁”,他说,“但是实际上水就在石头下!”
郑成功刚抖落衣服上的尘土,就听到一声清脆的响声,随后水潺潺地从石头底下涌出。郑成功从井里跳出来,水跟着就溢出来。直到今天,人们还对国姓井啧啧称奇。
在节假日和传说那一章,你将可以了解更多。

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